Laryngoscope

AUTHORS

Owen Killian
Pedro Marquez
Jasmine Roden
Jack Rotheram
Buket Ucar

DESCRIPTION

Laryngoscopes are a rigid medical device used to examine the vocal cords and glottis during tracheal intubation to provide a definite airway for the administration of general anaesthesia, whenever controlled ventilation is needed. They are also commonly used for visualisation during other procedures involving the larynx and upper tracheobronchial tree.

Finger Splint Kit

AUTHORS

Salim Sebaoui

Stephen Sechler

Simona Herbaj

Alethea Nair

Belen Rodrique

 

DEscription

Finger injuries, including fractures, sprains, burns and dislocations, are among the most common injuries in the world. In many of these cases, finger splints are the preferred treatment technique. This kit contains 6 different styles of customizable, 3D-printable finger splints as well as flexible fastening straps.

Cost

One set of the 7 splints and 2 straps costs just over €2 to print using the Ultimaker 2 3D printer.

 

Neck Brace

AUTHORS

Gavin Benett
Megan Cloughley
Sam Coffey
Denis Gibbons
Jaime Maroto

DEscription

A neck brace or cervical collar is a medical device which is used to hold the neck. This device is very useful to help recover the patient from traumatic head or neck injuries. The brace will help patients in disaster situations to avoid further injuries and to be transported safely to the hospital.

 

 

ASTHMA SPACER

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

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AUTHORS

Stefan Dukic
Beshoy Hosny Agayby
Fiachra Maguire
Deirdre Moroney
Amaury Vanvinckenroye

Spacers, also known as aerosol-holding chambers, are large, empty tubes that increase delivery of medication from pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs). MDIs deliver medication in a mist or spray. However, it can be difficult to inhale them properly as one needs to breathe in slowly, deeply and at the exact same time as the medication is released. The effectiveness of inhaler delivered asthma medication is increased with the use of a spacer. Furthermore, the use of a spacer has been shown to be superior to a nebulizer in terms of cost effectiveness. For low resource settings, where access to nebulizer equipment may be limited, an affordable spacer device similar to the Volumatic ™ will improve care greatly. By increasing the availability of the medication when delivered to the lungs, the use of a spacer aims to decrease medication usage and pulmonary associated morbitidites in order to drive down costs.

A 3D printed spacer device was designed. The key design requirement is a non-rebreather valve, to ensure that dispensed medication is not blown out by exhalations into the device. A seperate device will be made available soon which conforms to the Evohaler ™ connection standards, allowing retrofitting of the spacer device with patients existing inhaler devices.

Typical spacers cost between €5 and €25 and are usually made of plastic. Our PLA 3D printed spacing device comes to a cost of €4.27 with no additional transportation fees. 

DESIGN EXPLANATION

EXPLANATORY VIDEO

cost analysis

 *As per Radionics Ltd. 2016 **As per Electric Ireland charges 2016

*As per Radionics Ltd. 2016
**As per Electric Ireland charges 2016

Printing details

Power Point Presentation

OROPHARYNGEAL AIRWAY

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

AUTHORS

Oropharyngeal airways are commonly used by paramedics and first responders for short term airway management in unconscious patients when tracheal intubation is not available or contraindicated. When a patient is unconscious, the muscles in their jaw may relax and allow the tongue to cover the epiglottis, obstructing the airway. Using an oropharyngeal airway device is the quickest way to provide a patent airway. It can also facilitate suctioning, prevent a patient from biting his/her tongue, and aid in ventilation during CPR. The correct use of an oropharyngeal airway can be life-saving.

Commercially available oropharyngeal airways are generally made of hard plastic and come in various sizes. Reusable devices may come with a silicon rubber finish while disposable/single-use ones may be made of PVC plastic. The correct size is chosen by measuring from the angle of the jaw to the mouth of the patient. It is inserted upside down to avoid the patient’s teeth, and rotated 180 degrees over the tongue to allow air to pass through and around the device. The device extends from the lips to the pharynx of the patient.

3D PRINTING

Owen Killian
Pedro Marquez
Jasmine Roden
Jack Rotheram
Buket Ucar

We designed and 3D printed 3 oropharyngeal airways based on the standard dimensions for a small, medium and large sized adult. The 3D CAD model was designed on Solidworks® and 3D printed using an Ultimaker 2 3D-printer with polylactic acid (PLA) as the material. On the software Cura, the oropharyngeal airway was oriented vertically with the flange (part that protrudes from the mouth) on the baseplate. The device was printed under normal print speed, with support material, and normal PLA settings: 20% fill density, 50 mm/s print speed, 0.1mm layer height, and 210°C temperature. For each oropharyngeal airway of the different sizes, the time taken to print on normal print speed, the length of filament used and its approximate cost is as follows:

We successfully tested the use of the 3D printed oropharyngeal airways on a SimMan® patient simulator. We believe 3D-printing of oropharyngeal airways using PLA may provide a cheap, disposable and life-saving option for medical staff in emergency situations who are based in less-resourceful regions.

COST ANALYSIS

The following tables contain all the information related to the cost of the manufacturing of each device.

The total cost for the kit of three sizes oropharyngeal airways is 3.08€.

Prices have been calculated according to the next parameters:

 *, ** As per Radionics Ltd. 2016

*, ** As per Radionics Ltd. 2016

 ***As per Electric Ireland charges 2016

***As per Electric Ireland charges 2016

The energy E in kilowatt-hours (kWh) is obtained from the power P in watts (W), times the time period t in hours (hr) divided by 1000:

E(kWh) = (P(W) x t(hr))/1000

Demonstration video

POCKET MASK AND VALVE

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

AUTHORS

Owen Killian
Pedro Marquez
Jasmine Roden
Jack Rotheram
Buket Ucar

The pocket mask is a convenient, reusable, small device that can be easily carried and used quickly by an emergency responder for mouth-to-mask resuscitation in between chest compressions. They are widely used to deliver rescue breaths to the patient’s lungs during cardiac or respiratory arrest by exhaling air through a one-way valve attached to the mask. This provides immediate respiratory support to the patient. The one-way valve acts an effective physical barrier between the patient and rescuer, which prevents the exhaled air of the patient being inhaled by the rescuer. Therefore, the mask and valve minimises the risk of any cross contamination of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Commercially available pocket masks can cost approximately $10-20 USD.

DESIGN

The 3D printed mask comes in 2 sizes, a larger one for adults and a smaller one for children. They are circular in shape to fit around the patient’s mouth, and require an additional rubber tubing to be glued onto the perimeter for a better seal to prevent air leakage during resuscitation. As the mask does not cover the patient’s nose, the rescuer must pinch the patient’s nose closed while giving each breath. The size of the mask permits the rescuer to have both hands on the head of the patient to perform a head-tilt/chin-lift manoeuvre. The masks have a standard 15mm diameter male connection which makes it compatible with other commercially available one-way filtered valves and bags of bag-valve masks for more effective oxygen delivery.

The 3D printed one-way valve is made of 3 components and has a standard 15mm diameter female connection, making it compatible with other commercially available pocket masks. It uses a moving disc mechanism which directs the airflow towards the patient when the rescuer exhales and upon patient exhalation, the air is directed through an alternative output.

3D PRINTING

The 3D CAD model was designed on Solidworks® and 3D printed using polylactic acid (PLA) and an Ultimaker 2 3D-printer. On the software Cura, the mask was orientated flat onto the baseplate. The valve was orientated with the larger circular output laying flat on the build plate. The mask and valve were printed separately under normal print speed, with support material, and normal PLA settings: 20% fill density, 50 mm/s print speed, 0.1mm layer height, and 210°C temperature.

We successfully tested the use of the 3D printed masks and valves in combination with other commercially available masks, one-way filter valves and bag-valve masks on CPR models. We believe 3D-printing of pocket masks and valves using PLA may provide a simple, cheap and life-saving option for medical staff in emergency situations who are based in less-resourceful regions.

COST ANALYSIS

The following tables contain all the information related to the cost of the manufacturing of each device.

The total cost for the kit of two mask sizes and the one-way valve is 3.86€.

Prices have been calculated according to the next parameters:

*, ** As per Radionics Ltd. 2016

***As per Electric Ireland charges 2016

The energy E in kilowatt-hours (kWh) is obtained from the power P in watts (W), times the time period t in hours (hr) divided by 1000:

E(kWh) = (P(W) x t(hr))/1000

DEMONSTRATION VIDEO

SCALPEL

AUTHORS

Gavin Benett
Megan Cloughley
Sam Coffey
Denis Gibbons
Jaime Maroto

DEtailed description

The design of the scalpel is based on a 3D printed handle and a blade that can be easily inserted and discarded.

Components: 1 blade, 1 handle
Assembly needed: Yes
Materials: PLA Ultimaker Filament, RS Filament, stainless steel blade

PRINTING INFORMATION

Each printing session results in 8 scalpels. All our devices can be printed in high quality (HQ) or custom profile (CP).

Profiles: HQ / CP
Printing time: 6h 13 min / 13h 27 min
Power consumed: 1.226 kWh / 2.654 kWh
Plastic length: 3.19m / 5.19m
Weight: 25 g / 41 g
Cost:

  • €1.25 / €2.05 (Ultimate Filament)
  • € 0.75 / € 1.23 (RS Filament)

HOW TO USE IT

  1. Hold the scalpel between the thumb and two or three fingers of the hand
  2. Place the blade tip on the area to be incised
  3. Apply pressure firmly until incision is achieved
  4. Perfom incision by sliding the blade until finished
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Triage Tri-Tool

Detailed Description

Scale for Trauma wounds have an extremely high incidence in crisis zones, and techniques such including suturing, wound retraction and tissue clamping are integral for treating these wounds. The fact that the device can perform these three distinct roles is highly advantageous, as it can provide ample surgical utility with low printing time and costs. To find out more about each modality of the Triage Tri-Tool, please see the descriptions below.

Authors

Catalin Cristian
Lars Stumpp
Elisabetta Melis
Thomas McCartan
Júlia Massanés Pujol

 

Demonstration Video

Modalities

Needle Holder

This is the primary function of the tool. It has fine teeth at its tip, with alternating grain to provide complete closure, providing sufficient grip for standard suturing needles. The tips are triangular, with rounded edges to prevent damage to tissue. Each scissor has a curved design to allow better force distribution. The handle has multiple holes, allowing for different grip styles based on preference. The handle has a concave curve that permits better closure and decreases both material used and time printing. 

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Surgical Retractor

When the device is rotated 360° it realizes the surgical retractor modality. The curved shape of scissors allows sufficient force distribution to prevent failure. The outer grip position of the handle allows fine control of the retractor, and for large incisions, the outside of the handle can be used to provide large apertures for surgery. A separate clip, providing a locking mechanism can be printed, providing stability and reliability in surgery.

Surgical Clamp

In the standard needle-holder position, the handle can be used to clamp an artery, other tissue, or a medical device and the locking mechanism clip can provide stability to the clamp for this purpose.

Printing And Assembly

To Assemble the Tri-Tool: 
• To assemble the triage tri-tool, place one scissor on top of the other with the smooth side facing out
• Align the holes on the body of each scissor together
• Insert screw
• Place nut on screw and tighten

To Print the Tool Arms: 
• It is possible to print both left and right sides at the same time without problems (RF right part; LF left part) 
• Set 10 as scale for having 18cm length. Different scale can be set according your own preferences
• Set 99% as material filling
• The smooth aspect should be in contact with the printing plate

To Print the Nut and Bolt: 
• Print at least two for each element
• Set 0.8 as scale for the screw and 0.9 as scale for the nut
• Printing at the same time decreases the failure incidence
• The smooth aspect should be in contact with the printing plate

To Print the Clamp Holds: 
• The normal scale is 10, but we suggest to print in different scales to allow efficient clamping for varying scenarios
• Set 99% as material filling
• The smooth aspect should be in contact with the printing plate
• It is possible to print multiple clips at the same time

Cost Analysis

Costs have been calculated according to the following parameters:

*, ** As per Radionics Ltd. 2016; ***As per Electric Ireland charges 2016

The energy E in kilowatt-hours (kWh) is obtained from the power P in watts (W), times the time period t in hours (hr) divided by 1000:

E(kWh) = P(W) x t(hr)1000

Basic Surgical Kit

Authors

Catalin Cristian
Lars Stumpp
Elisabetta Melis
Thomas McCartan
Júlia Massanés Pujol

Detailed description

For both local and general surgeries, tools such as scalpels, forceps and retractors are essential for cutting, grasping and opening, respectively. Allowing effective versions of these tools to be 3D-printed could provide basic medical care for people in crisis zones who would otherwise have a shortage of medical supplies.

Demonstration Video

Tools: Scalpels

Scalpels are used in many surgical procedures to perform the incision of tissue and cadaveric dissection. They are made of two parts, a handle and a disposable sharp blade. 
Within the kit, it is possible to avail of two different kinds of scalpel, compatible with the following standard blades by Swann-Morton®: 

• No. 11 is an elongated triangular blade sharpened along the hypotenuse edge with a strong pointed tip making it ideal for stab incisions. 
• No. 21 is a blade with a curved cutting edge and a flat, smooth dorsal edge used for major invasive procedures. 

The handle is 150 mm long and the blades are easily set and blocked on the tip of the scalpel thanks to a sliding lock mechanism. The shape of the handle follows a different design for the two models, to provide the right amount of grip and resistance to force load during the surgery. 

• To assemble the blade, align the blade into the groove in the handle and gently slide it toward the scalpel handle. Continue to slide the blade onto the scalpel handle until it locks in place
• To remove the blade, slide the blade off the scalpel handle, moving it away from the handle
• Handle the blade with care

We recommend the following printer settings: 
• The smooth aspect of the scalpel should be in contact with the printing plate
• Suggested fill density 20% 
• Normal print

Other information
• To assemble the blade, align the blade into the groove in the handle and gently slide it toward the scalpel handle. Continue to slide the blade onto the scalpel handle until it locks in place
• To remove the blade, slide the blade off the scalpel handle, moving it away from the handle
• Handle the blade with care

Cost Analysis (Scalpel Only):

Tools: Forceps

The forceps are an instrument composed of a handle and a double tip, used to grasp, hold, handle or compress tissues, fibres, needles and sterile dressings. 

The forceps are 115 mm long and their design is ideal to handle small and medium size tissues, without the need to apply much force, thanks to the presence of grasping teeth located onto the tips and to the curved blocking mechanism situated close to them, which avoids pressure overload. The elasticity of the material and the grip protrusions on the handles make these forceps both comfortable and easy to use. 

We recommend the following printer settings: 
• The smooth aspect of the forceps should be in contact with the printing plate
• Normal print
• Suggested fill density 20%

Cost Analysis (Forceps Only):

Tools: Retractor

A retractor is a surgical instrument used to separate the edges of a wound or surgical incision, with the aim to allow access to deeper tissues and organs. 

The tool available in the kit consists of a single prong with a curved, sharp tip, and a handle. 

The full length of the retractor is 150 mm, the height is 60 mm, the depth of the hook is 40 mm. 

The hook allows this device to retract up to 4 cm of tissue, while the angled tip helps to hold the tissues firmly. The ergonomic handle is shaped to provide a good grip on both sides and can be used both by both right-handed and left-handed persons. Importantly, the extremity of the handle was designed as a blocking mechanism to avoid loss of grip, and can be even used as a further handhold. 

We recommend the following printer settings: 
• The retractor must be printed on the side, therefore with a support structure
• Normal print
• Suggested fill density 20% 

Other information
• The support structure can be easily removed with a cutter. Possible roughness can be removed with sand paper.

Cost analysis (Retractor Only):

All costs have been calculated according to the following parameters:

*, ** As per Radionics Ltd. 2016; ***As per Electric Ireland charges 2016

The energy E in kilowatt-hours (kWh) is obtained from the power P in watts (W), times the time period t in hours (hr) divided by 1000:

E(kWh) = P(W) x t(hr)1000

Haemostatic Clamp

Authors

Catalin Cristian
Lars Stumpp
Elisabetta Melis
Thomas McCartan
Júlia Massanés Pujol

Detailed Description

Haemorrhage is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in areas without access to primary healthcare centres. The haemostatic clamp can be used to prevent bleeding from external wounds, and can be operated by a civilian in a simple manner. The fast action and ease of use of this device means that it could prevent death in patients with acute trauma wounds.

Demonstration video

Printing And Assembly

For best printing results it is recommended to print the parts laying even on the largest flat face. For the locking clip this would be the side without the logo, for the clamp it would be the side facing away from the spectator at the first picture of the assembly instruction. Fill densities above 20% to ensure enough stability for a safe use. To assemble the clamp follow the steps in the the instruction graphic: 
 1. Remove the support structure at the hinge, this can be done by hand or using knives or other tools. The clamp is designed with enough tolerance to ensure full functionality even with small residues of the supporting stucture. 
2. Join the two halves of the clamp. 
3. Join the two halves of the locking clip by inserting the knobs into the gaps in the grooves and slide it apart. 
4. Insert the clamp into the locking clip so the sawtooth of the clip can lock into the ripples on the side of the clamp. Clip the spring onto its attachment above the hinge. Ensure the spring sits between the two bumps to prevent the spring from sliding off.

Instructions For Use

Application

To apply the clamp, place the teeth of the clamp face on the skin approximately 5mm from the wound edges. Press the clamp down gently with your palm. To close the clamp, place your thumb and middle finger into the grooves on each side of the locking clip and apply pressure till the clamp is fully locked.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Release

To release the clamp, grab the inner edge of the locking clip and pull it apart (green arrows). If the clamp is locked too tightly, use a retractor to widen the clip slightly (blue arrows) and then pull it apart (green arrows).

Cost Analysis

Costs have been calculated according to the following parameters:

*, ** As per Radionics Ltd. 2016; ***As per Electric Ireland charges 2016

The energy E in kilowatt-hours (kWh) is obtained from the power P in watts (W), times the time period t in hours (hr) divided by 1000:

E(kWh) = P(W) x t(hr)1000

 

REFLEX HAMMER 

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overview

Reflex hammers are medical devices used to test deep tendon reflexes. Reflex tests are performed as part of the neurological examination and help to identify anomalies in the neural circuits involved in generating the reflex. Our designed reflex hammers are able to elicit a broad range of reflexes and have a production cost around ten times lower than the price of commercial neurological reflex hammers available on the market.

Authors

  • Stefan Dukic
  • Beshoy Hosny Agayby
  • Fiachra Maguire
  • Deirdre Moroney
  • Amaury Vanvinckenroye

 

image gallery

detailed description 

Reflex hammers are used by neurologists to verify the integrity of the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system. This verification is important as 90 out of 100,000 people in the United States suffer from spinal cord injury, while an estimated 20 million American people suffer from peripheral neuropathy. Also, the Guillain-Barré syndrome, which results in nerve cell damage, affects 1 to 9 in 100,000 people worldwide. In addition, it has been estimated that 15% of diabetic patients develop diabetic neuropathy after 20 years of disease.

Furthermore, in the Third World countries, where malnutrition is recurrent, especially in regions where white rice forms most of the diet, Beriberi symptoms can develop. Most of these conditions can be diagnosed using reflex hammers. Hence, we designed and built two different models of the reflex hammer: the Queen Square reflex hammer and the Tomahawk (or Taylor) reflex hammer. The former is mostly used by UK neurologists, while the latter by American practitioners. The Queen Square and the Tomahawk reflex hammers are sold for a price that can range from €12 to €20 and €10 to €30, respectively.

Using both reflex hammers, we were able to reproduce reflexes ("knee-jerk" reflex, the Achilles reflex and the triceps reflex). We also tested the ability of our 3D printed models to generate these reflexes in comparison with a professional Queen Square hammer. To this end, we carried out a "knee-jerk" reflex test on 7 people, and concluded that there is no statistically significant difference between our models and the commercially available ones (see the graph below).

Our model of the Queen Square reflex hammer comes in two parts (the head and the handle), while the Tomahawk reflex hammer is printed in one piece.

results from the test

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design explanation 

explanatory video 

cost analysis

printing details 

 

ASTHMA INHALER 

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OVERVIEW

Asthma is becoming a major health issue in many developing countries and is characterised by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing. Asthma inhalers are hand-held portable devices that deliver medication to the lungs to control asthma symptoms. We offer a low-cost, easy to print inhaler that can help those affected by asthma anywhere in the world.

Authors

  • Stefan Dukic
  • Beshoy Hosny Agayby
  • Fiachra Maguire
  • Deirdre Moroney
  • Amaury Vanvinckenroye

image gallery 

detailed description

The most recent global estimate of asthma suggests that there are as many as 334 million people with asthma. It is a common disease among children, however it can also develop during adulthood. Frequent effects of asthma include sleeplessness, daytime fatigue, reduced activity levels in school and work absenteeism. Asthma symptoms may occur as frequently as several times a day depending on the severity of the condition. Physical activity can enhance the frequency and severity of the asthma attacks. Shortness of breath and wheezing result from the airways narrowing, which reduces the flow of air into and out of the lungs.

Increased urbanisation has disrupted the traditionally low incidence of asthma in the Third World. In order to help asthma patients, we have to improve their access to medication. Although inhalers are not extremely expensive, transportation costs are significant contributors. By 3D printing the inhaler, the costs and space needed for transportation will be reduced. Moreover, in war zones and regions hit by natural disasters transportation is difficult, hence 3D printed inhalers can play an important role in aiding patients.

The inhaler was designed on the commonly used Ventolin ™ inhaler and can be used with Evohaler ™ inhaler canisters.

explanatory video

cost analysis 

printing details 

 

PET RECLYCLING

overview 

PET is an abundant source of potentially recyclable material. Using a four stage process, we have managed to obtain 3D-printable filament from PET bottles. The bottle stripper, made of readily available materials found anywhere is the world, has the capability to turn most large plastic bottles into one long strip. This allows for further processing in order to create 3D printable filament from the recycled plastic. There is also a 3D printed version available for download.

Author

  • Shane O Neill
  • Ian Whelan
  • Elena Sedano
  • Rachael Power
  • Aoife Gaffney
  • Conor Keogh

image gallery 

detailed description 

The aim of med3DP is to use 3D printing to provide solutions to a variety of medical problems in areas of short supply. To support this aim, 3D printing equipment combined with a cheap, abundant supply of material is needed. By using one of the most ubiquitous items found all over the globe, plastic bottles, it is possible to create 3D printing material using the process given here.

By shredding the bottle into one long strip using a custom designed bottle shredder it is possible to greatly increase the speed of PET recycling. Following the remaining three steps of cutting, drying and extruding it has been demonstrated that recycled PET can be turned into 3D printable filament.

Shredding
Originally, the stripper was constructed out of chip wood, copper tubing, screws, washers and a steel blade. The design progressed as to be almost entirely made out of 3D printed plastic; the steel blade is still required however. Both designs are based on the same principles: A tube is fixed perpendicularly to a rigid surface and a steel blade is mounted, parallel to the surface, at a distance measured using a plastic bottle (the bottle is placed through the pole, any area in which the edge of the bottle and the rigid surface meet is a good place for the blade to be mounted). This simple design allows for an entire bottle to be reduced to a single long strip less than 2mm thick in only 3 minutes.

Now, the bottles are ready for cutting. The bottom of a bottle is removed and the insides cleaned with Acetone to remove surface impurities. Next, the bottle in placed on the pole. The bottle is rotated into the blade, causing an almost horizontal cut in the bottle. A strip passes through the gap between the blade and the rigid surface. At this point the strip can be grasped and pulled. It is only necessary to pull in one direction while maintaining a pulling angle approximately perpendicular to the blade. Then, it possible to "unravel" the bottle as fast as you can pull.

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Cutting

Now that the strip has been obtained, it is arranged neatly and cut into precise small square sections using a stationary guillotine with two elastic bands attached at either end. The flakes are gathered on a tarp made of tinfoil placed on the ground. The flakes are similar to commercially available PET or PLA pellets in appearance. However, the composition of this PET will almost certainly be severely degraded.

bottlestripper.jpg

Drying
The flakes are placed in a 60°C oven overnight to remove excess water. The average wet weight value of the material is approximately 23.6g with dry weight being 23.3g. The drying prevents the creation of steam during extrusion, and prevent degradation of the plastic which occurs by hydrolysis.

Extrusion
The dried plastic squares are placed in a hopper and extruded at a temperature of 240°C. The filament produced can then be printed at a nozzle temperature of 255°C and a printing bed temperature of 80°C. The filament was printed using an Ultimaker 2 primter with a nozzle dimater of 0.4mm.

 

Future developments

The filament obtained from this process is printable. However, the filament is quite brittle and has a highly variable molecular weight. Both these factors adversely affect the quality of printing. I think it would be possible to get better filament by cooking the flakes for longer and at higher temperatures (just below where the PET is motile). When polymers are heated somewhere between glass transition and melting points, the molecular weight is increased. I believe this would yield better results.

Additionally, the use of a plasticiser is likely to yield great results. As can be seen by the sample printed (shown below), print fidelity is not as high as PLA or most conventional 3D printing materials. By increasing the motility and decreasing the brittle bevahviour of the recycled PET, added plasticiser would surely increase fidelity immensely.

explanatory video 

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Speculum